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Full text of "Independence"

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Handbook 115 




Independence 



A Guide to 

Independence National Historical Park 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Produced by the 
Division of Publications 
National Park Service 



U.S. Department of the Interior 
Washington, D.C. 1982 



About This Book 

Independence National Historical Park is perhaps 
the most significant historical property in the United 
States— and also one of the most complex. Its build- 
ings and sites number some three dozen, and the 
many thousands of objects in its collections range 
from the little known to the transcendent. This 
handbook is a vista into this rich world of the 
founders. The essay by Richard B. Morris, author of 
many distinguished works on 18th-century America, 
summarizes the main lines of the Independence 
story. The concluding guide section has brief 
accounts, arranged alphabetically, of each of the 
principal historical places within the park, with 
suggestions on the best way to go about seeing them. 

National Park handbooks, compact introductions 
to the natural and historical places administered by 
the National Park Service, are designed to promote 
public understanding and enjoyment of the parks. 
Each handbook is intended to be informative read- 
ing and a useful guide to park features. More than 
100 titles are in print. They are sold at parks and by 
mail from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data 

United States. National Park Service. Division of 

Publications. 

Independence, Independence National Historical Park. 

(National Park Handbook; 115) 

Supt. of Doc. no. : I 29.9/5: 1 15 

1. Independence National Historical Park (Pa.) 

2. Philadelphia (Pa.)-Parks. I Title. II. Series: 
Handbook (United States. National Park Service. 
Division of Publications); 115. 

F158.65.I3U54 1982 917.48T1 81-607080 

AACR2 

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office. 
Washington, DC 20402. Stock Number 024-005-00830-6. 
•sUr GPO:1982-361-611/101 



Contents 



Part 1 Birthplace of the Nation 4 

Part 2 A Rising People 1 4 

By Richard B. Morris 

Part 3 Visiting the Park 34 

Army-Navy Museum 37 

Benjamin Franklin National Memorial 37 

Bishop White House 38 

Carpen ters ' Hall 38 

Christ Church 39 

City Tavern 42 

Congress Hall 42 

Deshler-Morris House 43 

First Bank of the United States 43 

Franklin Court 45 

Free Quaker Meeting House 46 

Gloria Dei (Old Swedes ') Church 46 

Graff House 47 

Independence Hall 50 

Liberty Bell Pavilion 53 

Library Hall 54 

The Marine Corps Memorial Museum 54 

Mikveh Israel Cemeterv 54 

Old City Hall 55 

The Philadelphia Exchange 55 

Philosophical Hall 56 

St. George's Church 56 

St. Joseph 's Church 57 

Second Bank of the United States 57 

Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial 58 

Todd House 58 



Parti 



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Birthplace of the Nation 



In the last quarter of the 18th eentury, Phil- 
adelphia was the center of some of the most 
creative and far-reaching political thought 
of the modern world. Here, within the space 
of a few square blocks, in buildings still 
standing in their original splendor, Ameri- 
cans cast off ancient colonial ties, directed 
the course of a long and uncertain war to 
secure their liberties, and instituted a form of 
government adapted to the new needs of a 
rising people. 

The sense of what John Adams called 
"this mighty Revolution" is still a presence 
in the buildings and sites of Independence 
National Historical Park. The Liberty Bell 
is a symbol known around the world. Inde- 
pendence Hall, where two great charters 
of national destiny were adopted, is a shrine 



to the principles of human rights and self- 
government. Each year millions visit them. 

This handbook is a guide to these and 
other historic places. It combines a percep- 
tive essay on the birth of the Nation by 
historian Richard B. Morris with a handy 
listing of sites. Interspersed are pictorial 
accounts of the principal events, people, and 
themes of this diverse park. Spend a few 
minutes with the interpretive portion of the 
handbook. It will repay you with insight into 
what is of lasting significance here: the 
deeds of a revolutionary generation which 
still profoundly influence our lives today. 



0* "U 



The United States was created in Phil- 
adelphia on July 4, 1776, when the 
Continental Congress voted the final 
form of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence. The United States was perpetu- 
ated on September 17, 1787, when the 
Federal Convention completed its work 
on the Constitution and referred it, 
through Congress, to the individual 
states for ratification. Both these great 
decisions were made in the same cham- 
ber in what is now called Independ- 
ence Hall, but was then the Pennsyl- 
vania State House. It would still be 
merely the old State House if inde- 
pendence had not been achieved and 
if the Constitution had not been rati- 



fied and put into effect. The noble 
building, so venerable to later ages, 
might not even have survived, but might 
have been swept away in the surging 
growth of a modern city. In that case, 
a few students of history would some- 
times remember the site as the stage of 
those lost causes. Instead, Pennsyl- 
vania's State House has become Inde- 
pendence Hall for the entire United 
States. Nor is that all. On account of 
the Declaration of Independence, it is 
a shrine honored wherever the rights 
of men are honored. On account of the 
Constitution, it is a shrine cherished 
wherever the principles of self-govern- 
ment on a federal scale are cherished. 

Carl Van Doren 



The Second Day of July 1776, will be 
the most memorable Epocha, in the 
History of America ... it will be cele- 
brated, by succeeding Generations, as 
the great anniversary Festival. It ought 
to be commemorated, as the Day of 
Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devo- 
tion to God Almighty. It ought to be 
solemnized with Pomp and Parade, 
with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, 
Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from 
one End of this Continent to the other 
from this Time forward forever more. 

John Adams writing to Abigail Adams, July 3, 
1776, just after Congress voted unanimously to 
sever ties with Britain. As it turned out, Ameri- 
cans chose to celebrate not the resolution of July 
2 but the vote on July 4 to adopt the formal 
Declaration. 



Metropolis of the Colonies 



From a simple Quaker town, planted in 1682 by 
William Penn as the capital of his "Holy Exper- 
iment," Philadelphia grew into the largest, 
wealthiest, most cosmopolitan city in the colo- 
nies. A traveler in 1749 wrote of its "fine ap- 
pearance, good regulations, agreeable situation, 
natural advantages, trade, riches and power." By 



1776 the population stood at nearly 30,000 per- 
sons, who occupied some 6,000 houses and 300 
shops clustered in a narrow strip along the banks 
of the Delaware. 

The city owed its prosperity to sea-going 
commerce, which tapped a rich hinterland and 
brought goods and new ideas from Europe. A 




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Penn 's original plan (above) 
shows the city spreading from 
river to river, with a central 
square and four smaller ones. 



William Penn lived in the Slate 
Roof House (left) from 1701-2. 
Christ Church (below) was foun- 
ded in 1695, built 1727-54. 




few great fortunes arose, but society was open 
and diverse, and persons of talent and enterprise 
could rise, as the lives of Franklin, David Ritten- 
house, John Bartram and many others attest. 

It was here that the Enlightenment — the intel- 
lectual awakening that swept Europe in the 
mid- 18th centurv — first flowered on these shores. 



Philadelphians established libraries and discus- 
sion clubs, patronized science, painting, and 
music, undertook reform and civic improvement, 
opened schools for their young— creating a cul- 
ture that was one of the glories of the age. 




The engraving above, which 
appeared in 1 740. is the 
first printed view of the 
Philadelphia waterfront. 



The Quakers took care of their 
poor. The Almshouse below, 
built in 1727. sheltered poor 
families in separate quarters. 




The City During the Revolution 



Revolutions have their dark sides, and for Phila- 
delphians the jubilation of mid-summer 1776 
soon gave way to scarcity, a raging inflation, 
turmoil in the streets, and, in September 1777, 
assault and occupation by Howe's redcoats. The 
British army found warm quarters for the winter 
and enough loyalists to feel almost at home, 



while Washington's troops froze at Valley Forge. 
Yet the occupation served no strategic purpose. 
Congress went about its deliberations at Lan- 
caster, and Washington's army remained intact. 
Washington almost routed Howe at German- 
town in October, and all winter he harassed the 
British and frequently cut their supply lines. 




To combat the powerful Royal 
Navy, Congress in early 1776 
commissioned the city 's yards 
to build four frigates. The first 
one ready, the 32-gun Ran- 
dolph, put to sea in mid-July. 
The conjectural sketch above 
shows her being fitted out. 



Thomas Paine published his 
widely influential pamphlet 
Common Sense in Philadelphia 
in January 1 776. Its arguments 
went far toward mobilizing 
public opinion in the months 
before the Declaration. 




10 



After Howe was dismissed in May 1778 for 
inactivity, it was clear that the city had really 
captured Howe. 

The patriots returned to a wrecked city. To 
restore order, Washington installed Benedict 
Arnold as military governor, but his high living 
and profiteering made him unpopular. An air of 



wartime settled on the city: regulations, drills, 
the persecution of dissenters, wranglings in Con- 
gress. Then in October 1781 came the news of 
Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown, and the 
public rejoiced with church services, artillery 
salutes, and "Illuminations." 





After Sir William Howe (left) 
occupied the city, Washington 
attacked his forward lines at 
Germantown on October 4, 
1 777. The assault was well 
planned but poorly executed. 



Fog and smoke from the firing 
blinded the American columns 
and prevented them from co- 
operating effectively. Some of 
the hardest fighting swirled 
around the Chew house, seen 
here in a painting made in 1 782. 



11 



Capital of the New Nation 



For 10 years, 1790-1800, while a new "Federal 
City" was building on the Potomac, Philadelphia 
was the capital of the young republic. To ac- 
commodate its Federal guest, the city offered 
the use of its public buildings. The County 
Courthouse, west of the State House, became 
the seat of Congress, the House taking the lower 



chamber, the Senate the upper. Both chambers 
were fitted out with mahogany desks, elbow 
chairs, carpeting, and stoves— all pronounced 
"unnecessarily fine" by a visitor. The Supreme 
Court shared City Hall with the mayor. The 
executive branch had to find its own quarters. 
Except for the Treasury, the departments, then 




The elaborate "President's 
House ''(above), built at Ninth 
and Market at a cost of $ 1 00, 000, 
was Philadelphia 's strong play 
for the permanent capital. But 
Washington had little interest 
in living there, and Adams de- 
clined the State s formal invita- 
tion in 1 797, dampening the 
city 's hopes. 




12 



quite small, rented space in private houses. The 
President lived and worked in Robert Morris' 
house near Market and Sixth. It was the most 
elegant house in town but one of the noisiest 
because of traffic. Though the State eventually 
built a "President's House" elsewhere, neither 
Washington nor John Adams, his successor, ever 



lived in it. While adequate, all these quarters 
were not enough to woo Congress into settling 
down for good in the city with the best claim of 
any to the seat of national government. 




Indian delegations frequently 
came to town in the 1790s to 
parley with the government over 
rights and treaties. This group 
representing northeastern tribes 
arrived in 1793, called on the 
President, and were shown 
about town. From a print by 
William Birch. 



The First Bank of the United 
States, chartered by Congress in 
1791 for 20 years, was the cul- 
mination of a brilliant cam- 
paign by Alexander Hamilton 
to create a national monetary 
system. This print by William 
Birch shows the building shortly 
after it was completed in 1 797. 



13 



A Rising People 



"Proclaim Liberty throughout all the Land 
unto all the Inhabitants Thereof. " These 
words from Leviticus inscribed around the 
crown of the Liberty Bell still cast their 
spell upon all who read them. They remind 
us of the freedoms for which the patriots 
fought the Revolutionary War. They sym- 
bolize that central purpose of American life, 
one still to be cherished and vigilantly pro- 
tected. It was the Liberty Bell which was 
rung on the first reading of the Declaration 
of Independence to the citizens of Philadelphia 
in Independence Square on July 8, 1776, 
and according to tradition, it cracked when 
tolled on the occasion of the funeral of Chief 
Justice John Marshall 59 years later. 



The Liberty Bell tolls no more, but the 
site in which it is located, Independence 
National Historical Park, is unique among 
all shrines commemorating the birth of the 
United States. No other cluster of buildings 
and sites conjures up for us so many images 
of great personages and significant events 
associated with the American Revolution 
and the founding of the Nation. At this site 
assembled the two Continental Congresses 
that united the Thirteen States in the con- 
duct of the war and the making of peace. 
Here was drafted, debated, and signed the 
Declaration of Independence and the Federal 
Constitution. In short, the momentous 
decisions establishing independence, national 
identity, and the rule of layv were all made 
at this historic site. 



Even long before the issues of the 
American Revolution had begun to take 
form, a remarkable statesman shaped 
the course of events in this area. This 
person was so extraordinarily gifted, so 
triumphant in so many fields that his 
feats dating back a generation before 
the outbreak of war with Great Britain 
have cast a legendary spell over the sites 
with which he was associated, most of 
them right here in Independence Nation- 
al Historical Park. Benjamin Franklin, 
who arrived in Philadelphia a penniless 
waif, disheveled and friendless walking 
up Market Street munching a puffy roll, 
propelled himself to the top by grit and 
ability. No person was more dreaded by 
the proprietary party than Franklin, and 
no figure commanded more prestige in 
the Provincial Assembly convened at the 
State House. In his celebrated Auto- 
biography he reveals some of the events 
in which he was a leading actor. 

At what is now Franklin Court this man 
of many hats— printer, publisher, civic 
leader, statesman, and world-renowned 
scientist— built a house in which he lived 
intermittently during the early years of 
the Revolution before being sent to 
France to help gain that nation's support 
for the American cause. To Franklin 
Court he returned after his triumphs in 
Paris to resume a life of enormous in- 
fluence as President of the Executive 
Council of Pennsylvania and finally as 
delegate to the Federal Constitutional 
Convention. Here at Franklin Court he 
died, but not before signing a memorial 
to Congress for the abolition of slavery 
—most fittingly, Franklin's last public act. 

Indubitably the most renowned, 
Franklin was but one of a group of Phila- 
delphians who joined with other radical 
leaders in setting up a model for a rev- 
olutionary apparatus combining mass 
involvement and economic warfare. 
Philadelphia became the principal seat 



Steel frames outline the site of 
the print shop and house that 
Franklin built in a spacious 
courtyard off Market Street. 
His portrait below is by the 
artist William Woodward. 

Opposite, a reflection in a 
cobble-stone puddle. 




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of such operations. The protest demon- 
strations and the boycott machinery 
developed in response to Parliamentary 
tax measures were largely centered or 
created in the area now covered by 
Independence National Historical Park. 

To circumvent a lukewarm Assembly 
dominated by Franklin's long-time politi- 
cal partner, Joseph Galloway, now turned 
conservative, more radical leaders were 
forced to assume the initiative. Men like 
John Dickinson, eminent lawyer and the 
author of the Letters of a Pennsylvania 
Farmer, that widely read pamphlet at- 
tacking the constitutionality of the Town- 
shend Acts, and Charles Thomson, the 
Irish-born schoolteacher and merchant, 
who became permanent secretary of the 
Continental Congress, together kept 
Pennsylvania abreast of developments in 
the other colonies. The seat of their extra- 
legal activities was City Tavern, one of the 
historic sites in the park. Built in 1773, 
that hostelry quickly became a focus of 
social, business, and political activities for 
the Philadelphia elite. John Adams called 
it "the most genteel" tavern in all America. 
Here on May 20, 1774, came Paul Revere 
with news from New England that Par- 
liament had passed a bill closing down the 
port of Boston. A great company gathered 
in the tavern's long room and, after a 
tumultuous discussion, passed a resolution 
agreeing to the appointment of a commit- 
tee to convey sympathy to the people of 
Boston and to assure them of Philadel- 
phia's "firm adherence to the cause of 
American liberty." 

From these informal debates in City 
Tavern the groundwork was laid for the 
Revolution in Pennsylvania. When the 
governor refused a request of the pop- 
ulace to summon the Assembly, the pop- 
ular leaders had committees set up in 
every county in the colony. Soon a de 
facto popular government by committee 
began to supplant and erode the lawful 




Patrick Henry 



John Jar 



18 



Assembly. The Philadelphia Committee 
of Observation, Inspection, and Corre- 
spondence, as it was called, operating out 
of its headquarters at City Tavern, pro- 
posed that a Congress of the Thirteen 
Colonies convene in September 1774. 
Where else but Philadelphia seemed 
more suitable? 

Twelve of the Thirteen Colonies 
(Georgia excepted) dispatched delegates 
to Philadelphia in the early fall of 1774. 
Joseph Galloway, as Speaker of the Penn- 
sylvania Assembly, offered the represent- 
atives the use of the State House in which 
to hold their deliberations. But the dele- 
gates shunned Galloway's offer and chose 
instead Carpenters' Hall, a private edifice 
serving the activities of the Master Car- 
penters of Philadelphia. That decision 
amounted to an open repudiation of 
Galloway and his conservative faction. 
It also forecast a cluster of radical actions, 
measures which were in no small degree 
influenced by the persuasive backstage 
tactics of the indefatigable New England 
cousins, Samuel and John Adams. 

Carpenters' Hall was now the stage of a 
stirring if brief drama played out between 
conservatives and radicals. The former 
made a last-ditch effort to adopt a plan 
of union proposed by Galloway. Rejected 
by a close vote, the conservatives aban- 
doned any serious opposition to the meas- 
ures of the radical faction. The First 
Continental Congress adopted a sweep- 
ing nonimportation, nonexportation, and 
nonconsumption agreement. The dele- 
gates approved an eloquent "Petition to 
the King" asserting the right of the col- 
onies to regulate their internal affairs and 
claiming for the populace the rights, 
liberties, and immunities of Englishmen. 
Before adjourning, the delegates recom- 
mended that a second Continental Con- 
gress convene at Philadelphia in the 
spring of 1775. Thus Carpenters' Hall saw 
the initial steps taken by delegates of 12 




City Tavern 




Carpenters 'Hall 



19 



People of the City 



On the eve of the American Revolution, Phila- 
delphia ranked as one of the five or six largest 
cities in the British Empire. It was no longer 
largely a city of Quakers, though Quaker influ- 
ence was still much in evidence. A steady influx 
of English, German, and Scotch-Irish immigrants, 
attracted by glowing reports of the colony's 
prosperity, not only swelled the city's population 



during the past several decades but also influ- 
enced its religious, intellectual, and cultural 
growth and material well-being. 

Philadelphia was a city of Lutherans, Jews, 
Catholics, Moravians, Methodists, and Presby- 
terians as well as Quakers; of gentry and 
merchants; of craftsmen and tradesmen; of 
housewives and "ladies"; of ordinary laborers. 



Upper-class woman 



Quaker merchant 




Eighteenth-century Philadel- 
phians were, according to the 
Rev. William Smith, "a people, 
thrown together from various 
quarters of the world, differing 
in all things— language, man- 
ners and sentiment. " Yet they 
nourished an egalitarian atti- 
tude that offered encourage- 



ment for advancement to all 
levels of society. "The poorest 
labourer upon the shore of the 
Delaware, " wrote the Rev. 
Jacob Duche in 1772, "thinks 
himself entitled to deliver his 
sentiments in matters of reli- 
gion and politics with as much 
freedom as the gentleman or 



the scholar. Indeed, there is 
less distinction among the citi- 
zens of Philadelphia than 
among those of any civilized 
city in the world. . . . For every 
man expects one day or an- 
other to be upon a footing with 
his wealthiest neighbour. " 



20 



In the months preceding the outbreak of war, 
and during the war itself, it also became a city of 
"strangers"— of delegates to the First and Sec- 
ond Continental Congresses, of military men, 
adventurers, and traders from around the world. 

Some outsiders found the city "disgusting 
from its uniformity and sameness" and its resi- 
dents not "remarkably courteous and hospitable 



to strangers." But the people of Philadelphia— 
whether garbed in Quaker plain dress, the gen- 
teel if sometimes gaudy finery of the gentry, the 
sober apparel of the tradesman, or the work- 
ingman's leather apron — reflected, even before 
the Revolution, many of the same democratic 
tendencies embodied in the Declaration of 
Independence. 



Shopkeeper 



German housewife 



Journeyman printer 




During the 18th century, Phil- 
adelphia was one of the leading 
publishing centers in America. 
Between 1740 and 1776, some 
42 artisans practiced the "art 
and mystery " of the printer 's 
trade in the city, among them 
Benjamin Franklin. Nearly all 
the printers supported the re- 



sistance movement, and the 
printing press proved to be a 
valuable ally in the production 
of anti-British articles, tracts, 
and books. 



21 



colonies to assert national sovereignty. 

For some 6 weeks between September 
and October 1774 Carpenters' Hall re- 
sounded with great oratory carrying both 
nationalists and revolutionary overtones. 
Most eloquent of all the delegates, Vir- 
ginia's Patrick Henry declared: 'The 
distinction between Virginians, Penn- 
sylvanians, New Yorkers, and New Eng- 
enders are no more. I am not a Virginian, 
but an American." Considered a more 
cautious spokesman than the radical 
Henry, John Jay, a young New York 
lawyer, warned the people of Great 
Britain that "we will never submit to be 
hewers of wood or drawers of water for 
any ministry or nation in the world!" 

Speaking at the Virginia Convention 
on March 23, 1775, Patrick Henry warned: 
"Gentlemen may cry, 'Peace! Peace!'— 
but there is no peace. The war is actually 
begun! The next gale that sweeps from 
the north will bring to our ears the clash 
of resounding arms!" Indeed, before the 
Second Continental Congress convened 
on May 10th at the State House (now 




The State House about 1800. 




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22 



Independence Hall), two blocks west from 
Carpenters' Hall, Henry's prophecy had 
been fulfilled. The shooting war had 
broken out at Lexington and Concord in 
Massachusetts. Now arguments over con- 
stitutional theories of empire which had 
absorbed so much of the First Continental 
Congress' attention gave way to the hard 
facts of war. 

The Second Continental Congress re- 
sponded to the challenge. Consciously 
regarding itself as the embodiment of the 
"United Colonies," Congress picked one 
of its own delegates, George Washington, 
present in the uniform of a colonel of the 
Virginia militia, to serve as commander 
in chief of "all the continental forces." A 
few days later, Congress pledged "the 
twelve confederated colonies" to support 
the bills of credit it now resolved to issue. 
Making a final concession to the peace 
faction, Congress adopted John Dickin- 
son's "Olive Branch" petition, the last 
appeal of the colonies to the King. Any 
notion that George III might have had 
about the weakening of Congress' inten- 



tions to continue the struggle were 
quickly dissipated by the subsequent 
adoption of the "Declaration of the 
Causes and Necessity of Taking Up 
Arms," wherein Dickinson and Thomas 
Jefferson, co-drafters of the document, 
solemnly declared: "Our cause is just. 
Our union is perfect." 

Ahead lay some of the climactic move- 
ments of the drama to be played out in 
Independence Hall. On May 15, 1776, 
Congress, in language drafted by John 
Adams, called upon the colonies to or- 
ganize their own governments as States. 
A crucial decision, it still fell short of a 
formal assertion by Congress of inde- 
pendence and nationhood issued by the 
colonies collectively; that declaration 
remained to be drafted, adopted and 
proclaimed to the world. 

Working at his desk in the second-floor 
parlor of the home of a young German 
bricklayer named Jacob Graff (the site of 
which, though some distance from Inde- 
pendence Hall, is under the park's juris- 
diction), Thomas Jefferson wrote the 



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23 



Declaration of Independence in 2 weeks. 
Despite trifling alterations by Franklin 
and John Adams and the deletion by 
Congress of the condemnation of slavery 
and the slave trade, the Great Declara- 
tion was the product of the mind and pen 
of Thomas Jefferson. Adopted on July 4, 
1776, and signed by most of the delegates 
a month later, the Declaration lifted the 
struggle from self-interested arguments 
over taxation to the exalted plane of 
human rights. It proclaimed the self- 
evident truths of equality, unalienable 
rights, and the people's right to alter their 
governments when a "long train of abuses" 
threatens "to reduce them under abso- 
lute despotism." 

Since Congress was both an executive 
and a legislative body, and, in the sense 
that it had jurisdiction over cases of cap- 
ture on the high seas, a judicial tribunal 
as well, Independence Hall stood at the 
center of the wartime business of the 
Continental government. Congress dis- 
patched commissioners abroad to seek 
out foreign aid. It ratified the treaties of 
amity and commerce and of military 
alliance with the King of France and, in 
turn, formally received the French minis- 
ter Conrad Alexander Gerard. The Con- 
gressional delegates wrestled with 
mounting fiscal problems, drawing upon 
foreign and domestic loans, requisitions 
from the States, and printing press 
money, and, finally, drafting the astute 
Philadelphia merchant -banker Robert 
Morris to serve as Superintendent of 
Finance. Morris made heroic efforts to 
maintain Congress' fiscal solvency in the 
face of mounting debt and runaway in- 
flation. His dazzling operations enabled 
him to finance the Yorktown campaign 
which resulted in the surrender of 
Cornwallis. 

These were grave responsibilities and, 
as more and more leading public figures 
left Congress for the theater of the war, 




Graff House 





n 1 


.... . 




1. 



The study, reconstructed, in 
which Jefferson wrote the 
Declaration. 



24 



to take up posts in the State governments, 
or to serve their country abroad, Con- 
gress at times proved barely equal to its 
responsibilities. Writing to James Warren 
of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress 
in April 1776, John Adams had sagely 
observed: "The management of so com- 
plicated and mighty a machine as the 
United Colonies requires the meekness 
of Moses, the patience of Job, and the 
wisdom of Solomon, added to the valour 
of David." In the absence of such men 
as Franklin, Jefferson, and Adams him- 
self, Congress had to perform to the best 
of its abilities. 

What Congress needed most of all was 
a constitutional structure that would 
confer upon the central government 
powers commensurate with its responsi- 
bilities. The Articles of Confederation 
that Congress adopted in 1777 (but which 
were not ratified by all the Thirteen 
States until 1781) fell considerably short 
of this objective. Lacking a strong execu- 
tive, or an effective taxing power, the 
Articles of Confederation required the 
affirmative vote of 9 States for the adop- 
tion of measures of the first importance 
and a unanimous vote to amend the 
document itself. 

Mute testimony to the weakness of 
the central government was the aban- 
donment of Philadelphia by Congress 
toward the very end of the war. Save 
for the period of the British occupation 
of the city (1777-78), Independence 
Hall housed the deliberations of Con- 
gress until in June 1783 mutinous threats 
by local militiamen made it expedient 
for the delegates to begin their peregri- 
nations, first to Princeton and then to 
Annapolis. It was at Annapolis that 
Congress ratified the victorious peace by 
which Great Britain recognized the 
independence of the United States and 
the new Nation was endowed with a 
territorial domain vaster than ever before 



embraced by a republic. 

Although Philadelphia was abandoned 
as the seat of the central government 
during the years of the Confederation 
and New York was to play host to 
the Continental Congress, Independence 
Hall was once more destined to house a 
great assemblage. Here on May 25, 1787, 
the Constitutional Convention convened. 
With some notable omissions, like John 
Adams and Thomas Jefferson who were 
holding diplomatic posts abroad, Patrick 
Henry and Richard Henry Lee who de- 
clined to serve, and John Jay who was 
passed over by his State in favor of an 
anti-nationalist candidate, the 55 men 
who convened at Philadelphia constituted 
an intellectual elite perhaps never again 
assembled to deal with public affairs in 
the history of the country. As Louis Otto, 
the French charge d'affaires, commented 
to his superiors at home: "If all the dele- 
gates named for this Convention at Phil- 
adelphia are present, we will never have 
seen, even in Europe, an assembly more 
respectable for the talents, knowledge, 
disinterestedness, and patriotism of 
those who compose it." 

Visitors to Independence Hall may 
view the chamber in which the Constitu- 
tion was framed. Sitting in Windsor 
chairs around green baize-covered tables 
were such principal architects of the 
Constitution as Pennsylvania delegates 
James Wilson and Gouverneur Morris, 
the latter chiefly responsible for the final 
styling and arrangement of the docu- 
ment. Nearby sat Roger Sherman and 
Oliver Ellsworth, Connecticut delegates, 
who proposed the Great Compromise 
providing for equal voting in the Senate 
and proportional representation in the 
House. Conspicuous both for his elo- 
quence and his extremist views was 
Alexander Hamilton of New York, whose 
influence proved far more effective in 
securing the Constitution's ratification 



25 



The National Compacts 



It's not too much to say that the American 
Republic was born in the Assembly Room of the 
old State House. Three times within a single 
generation delegates meeting here took control 
of their historic destiny and struck off national 
compacts. 

The Declaration of Independence, adopted 
July 4, 1776, called a nation into existence. It 
gave Americans— and revolutionaries every- 
where—a faith on which to base a republican 
form of government. Drawing on the political 
thought of the Enlightenment, Jefferson justified 
the break with Great Britain by appeal to the 
natural rights of man: life, liberty, and the 
pursuit of happiness, among others. When gov- 
ernment usurped those rights the people were 
entitled to alter or abolish it and institute new 
government. Jefferson and his colleagues did not 
invent this idea that sovereignty resides in the 
people and not in monarchs, governments, or 
institutions. Their distinctive contribution lay in 
giving the idea practical effect. 

To the age-old problem of how to govern 
government, Americans found a brilliant solu- 
tion in federalism— the distribution of powers 
between local and national levels. The Articles 
of Confederation, which went into effect in 
1781 , replaced an informal union with a central— 
if weak— government. They were the first halt- 
ing steps on a journey that still continues. For 8 
years they were the law of the land, but hardly 
adequate to the exigencies of war, economic 
depression, and rebellion on the frontier. The 
States had so jealously reserved their powers 
that Congress had little means of compelling 
taxes, controlling trade, or directing the general 
affairs of the Nation. 

It was clear to most thinking persons that a 
drastic remedy was needed. Called to Philadel- 
phia in the summer of 1787, delegates from 12 
States met in convention in the State House and 
framed a new instrument of government, the 
Federal Constitution. This document, which 
reconciled liberty with order and unity with 
diversity, laid down the principles by which 
Americans have governed themselves for two 
centuries. 




This painting, for all its 
matter-of-factness, conjures up 
one of the great scenes of the 
American Revolution. Jeffer- 
son, at center, hands the draft 
of the Declaration to President 
John Hancock as other mem- 
bers of the drafting committee 
—John Adams, Roger Sherman, 
Robert Livingston, and, sitting 
at center, Benjamin Franklin- 
look on. The artist is Edward 
Savage, who based his work in 
part on a canvas by Robert 
Pine. Though done long after 
the event, the painting is a use- 
ful guide to the appearance of 
the Assembly Room in 1 776. 



26 





Jefferson was lodging with 
Jacob Graff a bricklayer who 
lived on 7th Street, when he 
wrote his draft of the Declara- 
tion. He occupied a furnished 
parlor and bedroom on the 
second floor. In that parlor, he 
said much later, he "wrote ha- 
bitually and in it wrote this 
paper. " His purpose "was not 
to find out new principles, or 
new arguments, never before 
thought of. . . but to place 
before mankind the common 
sense of the subject, in terms 
so plain and firm as to com- 
mand their assent . . . it was 
intended to be an expression of 
the American mind. " 




James Madison was the single 
most influential figure at the 
Federal Convention. A scholar, 
an experienced politician, and 
a committed nationalist, he 
was persuaded that the pros- 
perity of the country depended 
on a strong union. He was the 
author of the Virginia Plan— a 
proposal for a central govern- 
ment with powers that oper- 
ated directly rather than indi- 
rectly on the people— and the 
tireless shepherd of his col- 
leagues toward that goal. It is 
from his notes, published many 
years later, that we have our 
view of what went on in the 
Convention. 



27 



than in its drafting. Of Virginia's James 
Madison one delegate wrote: "Every 
person seems to acknowledge his great- 
ness. He blends together the profound 
politician with the scholar." Self- 
appointed scribe of the Convention, 
Madison left us the most detailed and 
accurate record of the debates. 

Among the most treasured pieces in 
the park's collection is the high-backed 
President's chair. The occupant of this 
chair, for the nearly 3 months of the 
Federal Convention's continuous ses- 
sions, was George Washington. Already 
a legend, a commanding if generally 
silent presence, he presided over the 
deliberations with both vigor and tact. 
Old Benjamin Franklin, bringing to the 
assemblage an aura of benevolence and 
the wisdom of great years, looked up at 
the President's chair in the closing mo- 
ments of the convention and, as Madi- 
son records it, observed a sun with out- 
stretched rays on its back. "I have," he 
remarked, "often and often in the course 
of the session and the vicissitudes of my 
hopes and fears as to its issue, looked 
at that behind the president without 
being able to tell whether it was rising or 
setting. But now at length I have the 
happiness to know that it is a rising and 
not a setting sun." 

Upon ratification of the Constitution, 
Congress voted to establish the national 
capital at Philadelphia until 1800, when 
a permanent capital would be ready on 
the banks of the Potomac. After a brief 
stay in New York City, the new Federal 
Government took up residence here. 
Beginning on December 6, 1790, this site 
served as the seat of all three branches 
of the government and of the creative 
decisions of statecraft which marked the 
formative years of the new Nation. 

At the Philadelphia County Court- 
house (Congress Hall) President Wash- 
ington was inaugurated for his second 



28 



Roger Sherman Oliver Ellsworth 





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Ma* 



tA 



Old City Hall 



Gouverneur Morris James Wilson 




BCCi>- 



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HI ta^ 

PMJ 


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Congress Hall 



term, and this building was also the 
scene of the peaceful transition of the 
Presidency to John Adams in 1797. Con- 
gress met at this hall, with the House of 
Representatives occupying the lower 
floor, the Senate, the second story. In 
this hall such great issues as civil rights, 
constitutional powers, and economic 
policy were resolved. On December 15, 
1791, Congress declared the first ten 
amendments ratified by the necessary 
number of States. This cherished Bill of 
Rights would light a torch for both the 
States and many nations. In this hall Con- 
gress first carried out the provisions of 
the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 for 
admission of territories to statehood on 
an equal footing with the original Thir- 
teen States on attaining a population of 
60,000. This extraordinary innovation 
brought Vermont (1791), Kentucky 
(1792), and Tennessee (1796) into the 
Union. 

Congress Hall provided the forum for 
a notable clarification of the locus of the 
treaty-making power. Even before 
moving to Philadelphia the Senate, by 
declining to confer with President Wash- 
ington on a pending treaty, had created 
the inference that the constitutional 
provision empowering the President to 
make treaties "by and with the advice and 
consent of the Senate" meant "consent" 
after the fact of negotiation. If the 
Senate's role was now restricted, what of 
the House, which was given no explicit 
power over treaties in the Constitution? 
The test came after the Senate in a close 
vote had ratified the treaty that Chief 
Justice John Jay had negotiated with 
Great Britain in 1794. It was now up to 
the House to appropriate money to put 
the treaty into effect. To withhold the 
money would in effect annul the treaty. 
With the House closely divided, Repre- 
sentative Fisher Ames of Massachusetts 
carried the day for the appropriation 



29 



The First President 



'^(WojL^i^ (luU^^j^j^v^^f^ 



William Rush 's life-sized statue 
of Washington, c. 1814. 




During their terms as president, 
both Washington and Adams 
lived in the Robert Morris house 
(above). This handsome Geor- 
gian building, now lost, was the 
scene of the weekly levees that 
Washington gave for official- 
dom and leading citizens. The 
Deshler-Morris House in Ger- 
mantown (below) was Washing- 
ton 's residence and headquar- 
ters during the yellow fever 
epidemic of 1 793 and again 
during the summer of 1 794. 












30 



Washington 's original cabinet 
consisted of Thomas Jefferson, 
State; Alexander Hamilton, 
Treasury; Henry Knox, War; 
and Edmund Randolph, 
Attorney-General. As a body, 
it was a source of strength and 



some division. Jefferson and 
Hamilton held contrary views 
of the proper role of govern- 
ment. They differed at almost 
every point of domestic and 
foreign policy and were soon at 
odds personally. Jefferson 



thought Hamilton a threat to 
liberty, while Hamilton con- 
sidered the Virginian an im- 
practical theorist and an 
obstacle to the sound measures 
needed for national survival. 




Washington was overwhelmingly the popular 
choice for president. No one else— not even the 
aged Franklin— had the range of experience, 
the esteem at home, and the prestige abroad to 
lead what insiders frankly regarded as an exper- 
iment in self-government. 

He brought to the office common sense, un- 
common honesty, energy, and above all his own 
immense character, which across two centuries 
still touches his successors. The achievements 
of his two administrations (1789-1797) are many: 
winning the adherence of most of the people to 
the central government, establishing the national 
credit and a permanent army and navy, putting 
down rebellions by red men and white on the 



frontier, negotiating complicated treaties with 
Spain and Great Britain, and holding firmly to 
a policy of neutrality in disputes between 
European powers. 

Jefferson summed up Washington best: "His 
was the singular destiny and merit of leading 
the armies of his country successfully through 
an arduous war for the establishment of its in- 
dependence, of conducting its councils through 
the birth of a government, new in its forms and 
principles, until it settled down into an orderly 
train and of scrupulously obeying the laws 
through the whole of his career civil and mili- 
tary, of which the history of the world furnishes 
no other example." 




nrfi 




* 



The coach that Washington 
rode in as President is believed 
to resemble this one, which 
belonged to a wealthy Phila- 
delphian. The original is at 
Mount Vernon. 




31 



with a memorable speech that is still 
considered one of the supreme oratorical 
efforts in the history of Congress. 

Among the very first business of Con- 
gress was the chartering of the Bank of 
the United States under a bill drawn up 
by the dynamic Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, Alexander Hamilton, and defended 
by his persuasive resort to the Consti- 
tutional doctrine of "implied powers." 
A cornerstone of Federal fiscal policy, 
the bank, which served as a government 
depository and regulator of the currency, 
initially operated in Carpenters' Hall, and 
then moved to the stately new edifice 
on South Third Street (First Bank of the 
United States). When its charter expired 
in 1811, it was succeeded after some 
years by the Second Bank of the United 
States, which built a home of its own, a 
Greek Doric temple on lower Chestnut 
Street, designed by the young Philadel- 
phian William Strickland. The Second 
Bank, after flourishing under its third 
president, Nicholas Biddle, failed to have 
its charter renewed as a result of the 
implacable opposition of President 
Andrew Jackson. After it closed its doors, 
the bank building was used as a Customs 
House until 1935. Not far from the two 
banks stands the graceful Philadelphia 
Exchange (1834), Strickland's master- 
piece, and testimony to the continued 
importance of the city as a commercial 
and financial center. 

The Robert Morris mansion on Market 
Street below Sixth (no longer standing) 
served as the Presidential residence. The 
Department of State took a building at 
the northwest corner of Eighth and 
Market Streets, while the Treasury op- 
erated at the southwest corner of Third 
and Chestnut Streets. The Morris resi- 
dence was the scene of stately Presiden- 
tial levees and of informal meetings with 
departmental heads which formed the 
nucleus of the Cabinet system. Here 



32 




First Bank of the United States. 




mmr 



Second Bank of the United 
States. 



^4^ 







Philadelphia Exchange. 



Washington sought to reconcile the 
widening breach between Secretary of 
State Thomas Jefferson and Alexander 
Hamilton, which contributed to the 
emergence of the two-party system. Here 
Washington braved public opinion by 
steering a neutral course as the French 
Revolution threatened to drag America 
into a general European war. Here, too, 
the President submitted his Farewell 
Address to his Cabinet and then gave it 
to the people in the columns of the 
Philadelphia Daily Advertiser of Sep- 
tember 19, 1796. There people first read 
Washington's "Great Rule," an unaligned 
foreign policy. 

The Philadelphia City Hall (Old City 
Hall) served as the forum for the Supreme 
Court of the United States under succes- 
sive Chief Justices John Jay, John Rut- 
ledge, and Oliver Ellsworth. There deci- 
sions were handed down upholding the 
supremacy of treaties and defining the 
powers of Congress to tax, decisions 
which laid the foundations for the broad 
construction of the Constitution under 
John Marshall. 

Standing on the hallowed ground of 
Independence National Historical Park, 
one may still recapture those stirring 
moments when the people of Philadel- 
phia cheered the reading of the Great 
Declaration. One may catch echoes of 
the response of a sobered Congress 
hearing dispatch after dispatch from 
General Washington remonstrating on 
the lack of funds and supplies for his 
starving and half-naked soldiers, or the 
shock of the news of the treason of 
Arnold and of the capitulation of 
Charleston. There were heartening mes- 
sages as well: the victory of Saratoga, 
the news of the French alliance, of the 
arrival of Rochambeau with French 
troops and naval forces, the climactic 
triumph at York town, and the Prelimi- 
nary Peace which in effect ended the 



war and was to bring the United States 
recognition from all the great powers. 

In his first Inaugural Address delivered 
in New York, Washington had summed 
up the glorious epoch in which he and 
his associates had been principal actors, 
and, in these stirring and cautioning 
phrases, challenged his fellow Americans 
to participate in the new era: "The pres- 
ervation of the sacred fire of liberty, and 
the destiny of the republican model of 
government, are justly considered as 
deeply, perhaps as finally, staked on the 
experiment entrusted to the hands of the 
American people." 

Composed some two centuries ago, 
Washington's articulation of America's 
purposes, its responsibilities, and its 
special role as a symbol of the demo- 
cratic way of life both at home and 
abroad constitutes a message and a 
reminder to those who visit this historic 
place where the people of the United 
States first asserted their sovereign right 
to control their own destiny. 

Richard B. Morris 



33 



Part 3 



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.V*' 



Visiting the Park 



Independence National Historical Park 
is rich in places associated with the 
founding and early growth of the United 
States. Among its many attractions are 
government buildings, restored homes, 
venerable churches, a portrait gallery, 
exhibits, films and even an operating 
tavern. 




While there is pleasure in a casual 
stroll among this stunning variety, the 
park is more rewarding if you take time 
to plan your visit. There is more here 
than can be seen in a few hours or even 
a single day. The guide that follows 
will help you make the most of your 
visit. It offers helpful suggestions and 
introduces the individual units of the 
park in an orderly way. Used in con- 
junction with the map on pages 62-63, 
it will help make your tour both enjoy- 
able and memorable. 



m 






^i:- 



Gazetteer of the Park 



Make an Itinerary Time slips away quickly here. 
Whether your stay is for a few hours or a few 
days, your tour will go smoother if you take 
several minutes to study this guide and deter- 
mine what you want to see 

Most park buildings are within easy walking 
distance of the visitor center. Outlying sites, 
such as the Deshler-Morris House in German- 
town or the Benjamin Franklin National 
Memorial across town, can be reached by either 
automobile or mass transit. 

If you have only a few hours, we suggest that 
you go first to the visitor center, Independence 
Hall, and the Liberty Bell Pavilion. If you have 
more time, the following itineraries are 
suggested: 



Half-day Tour 

Visitor Center 

Carpenters' Hall (exterior only) 
Independence Hall 
Liberty Bell Pavilion 
Franklin Court 
Full-day Tour 
Visitor Center 
Carpenters' Hall 
Independence Hall 
Congress Hall 
Old City Hall 
Graff House 
Liberty Bell Pavilion 
Franklin Court 
Second Bank of the United States 



Start at the Visitor Center No matter how much 
time you have, begin at the visitor center at 3d 
and Chestnut Streets. Here you can see exhibits 
and an introductory film, "Independence," and 
find out about daily programs and activities. 
Park rangers are on duty here and throughout 
the park to answer questions and help you have 
a safe and satisfying visit. 

Hours and Admission Most park buildings are 
open daily from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; in summer the 
hours of some buildings are extended. Please 
note that hours are subject to change without 
notice and that some buildings may be closed 
because of lack of staff. Check at the visitor 
center for the hours of specific buildings. 

There are no admission fees except for a 
nominal charge at the Deshler-Morris House in 
Germantown. The Bishop White House, the 
Todd House, and Independence Hall are open 
only by tour. Free tickets for the Bishop White 
and Todd Houses can be obtained at the visitor 
center on the day of visit. Tours of Indepen- 
dence Hall begin in the East Wing, on a first- 
come, first-served basis. 

When to Visit Although temperatures in Phila- 
delphia are usually moderate, summer humidity 
can sometimes cause discomfort. You should 
also take into account that mid-spring through 
Labor Day are the busiest times. Expect to wait 
in line to get into Independence Hall during this 
period. 

For Special Needs Most park buildings are at 
least partially accessible by wheelchair. Some 
sites have portable ramps that can be put in 
place upon request. Please ask at the visitor 



center for further information about accessibil- 
ity for the disabled. 

Inquire also at the visitor center about pro- 
grams and services in foreign languages. 

Publications and Souvenirs Bookstores featur- 
ing theme-related publications are located in the 
visitor center and the West Wing of Indepen- 
dence Hall. Film and souvenirs are available in a 
number of stores in the vicinity of the park. 

Where to Eat Allow sufficient time for rest and 
refreshments. A variety of food service is avail- 
able throughout the park area. It ranges from 
street vendors to restaurants serving full-course 
meals. Further information is available at the 
visitor center. 

The National Park Service has reconstructed 
City Tavern, which serves lunch and dinner in an 
18th-century atmosphere. 

Picnicking is allowed throughout the park, 
though no indoor facilities are available. Help 
keep the park clean by putting your trash in the 
cans provided. 

Rules and Regulations There are few rules 
beyond those of common courtesy. We ask that 
you not bring food, beverages, and chewing gum 
into park buildings. Smoking is not permitted in 
any of the buildings. When parking along the 
street, please observe city parking regulations. 

For Your Safety Don't let your visit be spoiled 
by an accident. Be careful crossing Philadel- 
phia's busy streets and watch your step on brick 
walkways and cobblestone surfaces. 



36 



Army-Navy Museum (formerly 
Pemberton House) depicts the 
development of the U.S. Army 
and Navy from 1775 to 1800. 
Among the exhibits are regi- 
mental uniforms, battle dio- 
ramas, flags, weapons, and a 
full-scale replica of a section 
of a frigate's gundeck. The 
museum building is a recon- 
struction of the house built by 
Joseph Pemberton, a wealthy 
Quaker merchant, and is typ- 
ical of the Georgian style of 
architecture popular during the 
18th century. 
Chestnut Street at Carpen- 
ters ' Court 



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-J- ' ' *:-** 

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Benjamin Franklin National 
Memorial honors Philadel- 
phia's most illustrious citizen. 
The memorial, located in the 
Franklin Institute at 20th Street 
and Benjamin Franklin Park- 
way, features a colossal statue 
of Franklin surrounded by a 
four-part exhibit of his personal 
possessions and scientific arti- 
facts. Admission to the memo- 
rial is free, but a fee is charged 
for the Franklin Institute 
Museum. The Institute is ap- 
proximately 20 blocks from 
Independence Hall. 
O 20th Street and Benjamin 
Franklin Parkway 




37 



Bishop White House. The Rev. 
Dr. William White, rector of 
Christ Church and St. Peters 
Church, and the first Episcopal 
Bishop of Pennsylvania, lived 
in this house from the time it 
was built in 1787 until his death 
in 1836. White chose its loca- 
tion because it lay midway be- 
tween the two churches he 
served. The house has been 
restored to reflect the lifestyle 
of upper-class Philadelphians 
during the 18th century. Many 
of the items in the house 
actually belonged to the Bishop. 
Open by tour only. Free tickets 
are available at the visitor 
center. 
O 309 Walnut Street 




Carpenters' Hall was built in 
1770 by the Carpenters' Com- 
pany of Philadelphia, a guild 
founded in 1724 to help its 
members develop architectural 
skills and to aid their families 
in times of need. The delegates 
to the First Continental Con- 
gress met here in September 
1774 to air their grievances 
against King George III. In the 
spring of 1775, the Second 
Continental Congress trans- 
ferred its sessions to the more 
commodious State House (now 
Independence Hall), but Car- 
penters' Hall continued to be 
used by various political groups. 
During the Revolutionary War, 
the Hall served as a hospital 
and an arsenal for American 
forces. Though a part of the 
park, the building and its im- 
mediate grounds are still owned 
and maintained by the Car- 
penters' Company. 
O 320 Chestnut Street between 
Third and Fourth Streets 




38 




Christ Church, built between 
1727 and 1754, is considered 
one of the most beautiful 18th- 
century structures in the 
United States— a monument to 
colonial craftsmanship. It 
numbered among its congrega- 
tion both George Washington 
and Benjamin Franklin. Seven 
signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, as well as four 
signers of the Constitution, are 
buried in the churchyard or in 
Christ Church Cemetery at 
5th and Arch Streets. 
O Second Street north of 
Market Street 




39 



City Tavern 



For three decades this tavc 
prosperous Philadelphians j 
join in song and dance, anc 
Built in 1773 by the "princi^ 
city, the tavern boasted se> 
rooms, lodging rooms, two] 
It was furnished in "the styl 
Tavern," advertised the ke^ 
room was "well attended 
with English and America 
zines." John Adams, not or 



a place for called it in 1774 "the most genteel" tavern in 

; , lift a glass , America. 

;t business. The tavern was soon caught in the tides of 

ltlemen" of the revolution. At a famous meeting here in May 

rge meeting 1774, radicals propelled the colony, heretofore 

jns, and a bar. moderate, into the forefront of the dispute with 

>ndon England. From then until the end of the century, 

id its coffee in war and peace, this tavern was host to the 

>erly supplied great and near-great of the age — and countless 

and maga- folk who came to dine, to sit with friends, to 

jr-praise, lodge in agreeable surroundings. In the early 



1800s, City Tavern's place on the Philadelphia 
social scene was taken by "hotels," then coming 
into fashion. The tavern at this time catered 
mostly to merchants. The old glamour was now 
gone. In 1854 the building was demolished, 
"immolated on the altar of improvement," as a 
newspaper put it. The present building is a 
faithful reconstruction of the original. 





City Tavern, called the "most 
genteel" tavern in America by 
John Adams, was one of the 
social, political, and economic 
centers of late- 18th-century 
Philadelphia. It was built 
originally in 1773 by a group 
of eminent Philadelphians who 
felt that their hometown de- 
served a fine tavern that re- 
flected its status as the largest, 
most cosmopolitan city in 
British North America. The 
tavern gained fame as the 
gathering place for members 
of the Continental Congresses 
and the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, and for officials of the 
Federal Government from 
1790 to 1800. It has been recon- 
structed on the original site as 
an operating 18th-century 
tavern serving lunch and dinner 
daily. 
O Northwest corner, Second 
and Walnut Streets 




Congress Hall, constructed in 
1787-89 as the Philadelphia 
County Court House, served as 
the meetingplace of the U.S. 
Congress from 1790 to 1800. 
The House of Representatives 
met on the main floor, while 
the Senate assembled upstairs. 
Among the historic events that 
took place here were the Presi- 
dential inaugurations of George 
Washington (his second) and 
John Adams; the establishment 
of the First Bank of the United 
States, the Federal Mint, and 
the Department of the Navy; 
and the ratification of Jay's 
Treaty with England. During 
the 19th century, the building 
was used by Federal and local 
courts. 
Q Southeast corner, Sixth and 
Chestnut Streets 




42 



Deshler-Morris House was 

erected in 1772-73 as the sum- 
mer home of David Deshler, a 
successful Philadelphia mer- 
chant. The house served as 
headquarters for British Gen. 
Sir William Howe during the 
Battle of Germantown in Octo- 
ber 1777 and as the official 
residence of President Wash- 
ington during the Philadelphia 
yellow fever epidemic of 1793. 
O 5442 Germantown Avenue, 
Germantown 




First Bank of the United States, 

built between 1795 and 1797 as 
the home of the "government's 
banker," is an excellent ex- 
ample of Neo-classical architec- 
ture and is probably the oldest 
bank building in the country. 
Formed in 1791 at the urging 
of Secretary of the Treasury 
Alexander Hamilton to bring 
order to the Nation's chaotic 
finances, the First Bank served 
the country well until 1811, 
when its charter was allowed 
to expire. The building has 
been restored on the exterior 
only and is not open to the 
public. 
O 120 South Third Street, be- 
tween Chestnut and Walnut 
Streets 




43 



Franklin and His House 



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Franklin 's sketch of the first 
floor, in his own hand. 



The present development of 
the site is a nation 's belated 
tribute to perhaps its most rep- 
resentative genius. Steel 
frames, the design of architect 
Robert Venturi, outline the 
original house and the 1 786 
print shop. Fronting Market 
Street are restorations of five 
buildings, three of which are 
rental houses Franklin built 
shortly after his return from 
France. 



Franklin's house, the only one he ever owned, 
stood in an airy court off Market Street. Built 
1763-1765, it was a handsome structure 34 feet 
square, three stories high, with three rooms to a 
floor, a kitchen in the cellar, and chimneys on 
the side. By all accounts it was roomy and 
comfortable, filled with the fashionable touches 
of the day and well-suited to Franklin's manner 
of living. It was, he once said, "a good House 
contrived to my Mind." 

Yet Franklin spent comparatively few years 
here. Political missions kept him abroad for 
almost 19 of the next 20 years. When he re- 
turned for the last time in 1785 after his brilliant 
tour as envoy to France, he was 80, home for 
good, with time to devote to his house. He now 
built an addition on the west side that expanded 
the house by half. This gave him space for a 
library, two bedrooms, two garrets, and a place 
to store wood. "I hardly know how to justify 
building a Library at an age that will so soon 
oblige me to quit it," he mused, "but we are apt 
to forget that we are grown old, and Building is 
an Amusement." He also improved the grounds 
with grass plots, trees, flowering shrubs, and 
gravel walks. 

After Franklin's death in 1790, the house and 
property passed into the hands of descendents, 
who lived in it for a time before leasing it out to 
a succession of tenants. By 1812 there was little 
interest in the house, and it was torn down to 
make way for commercial development. 




44 



Franklin Court, is the site of 
the handsome brick home of 
Benjamin Franklin, who lived 
here while serving in the Con- 
tinental Congress, the Consti- 
tutional Convention, and as 
President of Pennsylvania. 



Franklin died here in 1790; the 
house was torn down about 20 
years later. Today the site con- 
tains a steel "ghost structure" 
outlining the spot where Frank- 
lin's house stood and features 
an underground museum with a 



film and displays, an operating 
18th-century print shop, an 
architectural/archeological 
exhibit, an operating post 
office, and a postal museum. 
{D Market Street between 
Third and Fourth Streets 




Free Quaker Meeting House 

which was built in 1783, is the 
oldest meetinghouse in Phila- 
delphia. The Free Quakers, 
unlike the main body of 
Quakers which remained paci- 
fist, supported and fought for 
the American cause during the 
Revolution. The building serves 
as headquarters for the Junior 
League of Philadelphia, which 
operates a museum on the 
first floor. 
Q Fifth and Arch Streets 




Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') 
Church was built in 1700 and 
is the oldest church in Penn- 
sylvania. The Swedes preceded 
the English to this part of 
America and began the Gloria 
Dei congregation in 1646. For 
nearly two centuries this church 
was under Swedish hierarchy, 
but after the Scandinavians 
were absorbed into the general 
American population, Gloria 
Dei was admitted into the 
Episcopal Church in 1845. The 
church, a National Historic 
Site, is owned and maintained 
by its congregation and con- 
tains an abundance of histor- 
ical relics and artifacts. 
(J) Dela ware A venue and Chris- 
tian Street 




46 



Graff House was originally built 
in 1775 by Philadelphia brick- 
layer Jacob Graff, Jr. During 
the summer of 1776 Thomas 
Jefferson, a 33-year-old dele- 
gate from Virginia to the Con- 
tinental Congress rented the 
two second-floor rooms and 



there drafted the Declaration 
of Independence. The house 
was reconstructed in 1975. The 
first floor contains exhibits and 
a short film on the drafting of 
the Declaration. On the second 
floor, the bedroom and parlor 
that Jefferson occupied have 



been recreated and contain 
period furnishings. Also in- 
cluded are reproductions of 
Jefferson's swivel chair and the 
lap desk he used when he wrote 
the Declaration. 
(£) Southwest corner, Seventh 
and Market Streets 




47 



Treasures of Independence 


























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While Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell 
are among the best-known "treasures" of Inde- 
pendence National Historical Park, there are 
thousands of other objects, less well-known and 
less spectacular, among the park's extensive 
holdings. Assembled over a period of many 
years, these items are exhibited in 54 historic 
room reconstructions and 45 separate exhibit 
areas throughout the park. They range from fine 
furniture created by Philadelphia artisans that 
rivals the best of European craftsmen to words 
and images on paper and canvas that denote the 
emergence of an American identity. Some of the 
treasures appear on these pages. 







48 




The Governor's Council Cham 
her on the second floor of Inde- 
pendence Hall (above) reflects 
the position and affluence of 
the colony 's chief executive. 
The chairs flanking the fire- 
place are by the cabinetmaker 
Thomas Affleck. Both the 
maple cellarette for wine 
bottles (left of the fireplace) 
and the voluptuous walnut arm 
chair silhouetted at left are 
Philadelphia made. The arm- 
chair is c. 1 745, the cellarette 
c. 1770. 




The silver coffeepot at top was 
made by a Philadelphia crafts- 
man c. 1 780-85. It can be seen 
in the Bishop White House. 
The dinner plates are 18th- 
century English and on display 
in the visitor center. The por- 
trait at left of Rebecca Doz, 
daughter of a Philadelphia 
merchant, is attributed to James 
Claypoole, Jr., c. 1768-70. It 
hangs in the Second Bank. 



49 



Independence Hall was con- 
structed between 1732 and 
1756 as the State House of the 
Province of Pennsylvania. It 
was planned and designed by 
lawyer Andrew Hamilton and 
is considered a fine example of 
Georgian architecture. From 
1775 to 1783 (except for the 
period when the British occu- 
pied the city) this was the meet- 
ing place for the Second Con- 
tinental Congress. It was in 
the Assembly Room, pictured 
here , that George Washing- 
ton was appointed commander 
in chief of the Continental 
Army in 1775 and the Declara- 
tion of Independence was 
adopted on July 4, 1776. It was 
in this same room that the de- 
sign of the American flag was 
agreed upon in 1777, the Arti- 
cles of Confederation were 
adopted in 1781, and the Con- 
stitution was written in 1787. 
The building, inside and out, 
has been restored wherever 
possible to its original late- 18th- 
century appearance. Most of 
the furnishings are period 
pieces (almost all of the original 
furniture was destroyed during 
the British occupation), but the 
silver inkstand on the Presi- 
dent's desk in the Assembly 
Room is the one used by the 
delegates to sign both the Dec- 
laration and the Constitution. 
The "rising sun" chair used by 
Washington during the Consti- 
tutional Convention is also 
original. Independence Hall is 
open by tour only. Tours begin 
in the East Wing and are on a 
first-come, first-served basis. 
(J) Chestnut Street between 
Fifth and Sixth Streets 




50 




51 



The Liberty Bell 




The Liberty Bell is an emblem of liberty around 
the world. In the affections of the American 
people, it overshadows even Independence Hall, 
the building it was so intimately associated with 
for so many years. The name was coined in the 
19th century by anti-slavery groups. Inspired by 
the "Proclaim Liberty" inscription, they adopted 
the bell as symbolic of their cause. Over the 
years the bell's history has become encrusted 
with a nearly impenetrable blend of fact and 
fancy. The illustration at left, from an 1839 
abolitionist pamphlet, is the first known use of 
the bell in a publication. The sketch below, 
which appeared in Harper's Weekly in 1869, 
shows the bell as it was displayed in the Assem- 
bly Room between 1854 and 1876. 




52 



Liberty Bell Pavilion. Most 
people associate the Liberty 
Bell with the events of the 
American Revolution. Actually, 
however, the bell was created 
to commemorate the 50th 
anniversary of the Pennsylvania 
Charter of Privileges, the 
democratic constitution that 
William Penn granted his 
colony in 1701. Today the bell 
is a cherished and revered sym- 
bol of American freedom. 

Cast at London's White- 
chapel Bell Foundry, the bell 
arrived in Philadelphia in 
August 1752. It cracked while 
being tested and "two ingenious 
workmen" of the city, John Pass 
and John Stow, offered to re- 
cast it. They succeeded after 
two attempts and the bell was 
hung in the State House tower, 
where it would see long service. 
No one knows for sure when 
the bell next cracked but, ac- 
cording to tradition, it occurred 
while tolling during the funeral 
of Chief Justice John Marshall 
in 1835. The bell was last rung 
formally on Washington's birth- 
day in 1846. 

At 12:01 a.m. on January 1, 
1976, the first minute of the 
Bicentennial year, the Liberty 
Bell was moved from its former 
home in Independence Hall to 
this glass-walled structure. The 
move was necessary to help 
preserve Independence Hall 
from damage due to increased 
visitation and to make the bell 
more accessible to everyone 
who wanted to see and touch 
it. Park interpreters are on duty 
each day to talk with visitors 
about the bell and to answer 
questions. At night the bell is 
still visible from outside the 
Pavilion and visitors can hear 
its story by using the exterior 
audio stations. 
<J) Market Street between 
Fifth and Sixth Streets on 
Independence Mall 




53 



Library Hall was built originally 
in 1789-90 by the Library Com- 
pany of Philadelphia, the oldest 
subscription library in the 
United States. Members of the 
Continental and Federal Con- 
gresses and the Constitutional 
Convention used the Library 
Company's facilities. The 
original building was demol- 
ished in 1884 but the American 
Philosophical Society rebuilt 
and enlarged it in 1959. It 
currently houses the society's 
library and is open for use by 
scholars. 
© 105 South Fifth Street 





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The Marine Corps Memorial 
Museum (formerly New Hall) 
contains exhibits depicting the 
founding of the U.S. Marine 
Corps in Philadelphia in 1775 
and the exploits of the Corps 
during the American Revolu- 
tion. The museum building is a 
reconstruction of New Hall, 
built by the Carpenters' Com- 
pany in 1791 and originally used 
to house the office of the first 
Secretary of War, Henry Knox, 
and his staff. The Marine Corps 
exhibits are a joint effort by 
the National Park Service and 
the Marine Corps Historical 
Center. 
© Carpenters ' Court 




Mikveh Israel Cemetery is the 

oldest Jewish cemetery in Phila- 
delphia. It was established as 
a private burial ground in 1738 
by Nathan Levy on land granted 
to him by the Penn family. In 
1774 it was deeded to the Mik- 
veh Israel Synagogue, the only 
Jewish house of worship that 
continued to function in the 
colonies during the Revolution. 
Haym Salomon, a financier of 
the Revolution, is buried here 
in an unmarked grave. 
© Spruce Street between 
Eighth and Ninth Streets 




54 



Old City Hall was used by the 
U.S. Supreme Court from the 
time the building was com- 
pleted in 1791 until 1800, when 
the Federal Government was 
moved to Washington. Munici- 
pal government and courts 
occupied the building during 
the 19th century. Today the 
first floor contains exhibits on 
the Supreme Courts use of the 
building; the second floor con- 
tains exhibits on late- 18th-cen- 
tury Philadelphia's occupations, 
crafts, and daily activities. 
^ Southwest Corner, Fifth 
and Chestnut Streets 




The Philadelphia Exchange 

was constructed in 1834 for the 
use of the thriving Philadelphia 
business community. Here 
stocks and commodities could 
be traded and the latest business 
news obtained. Designed by 
William Strickland, this Greek 
Revival building has been called 
"one of the great creations of 
American architecture." It has 
been restored on the exterior 
only and is not open to the 
public. 
^) Northeast Corner, Third and 
Walnut Streets 




55 



Philosophical Hall is the only 
privately owned building on 
Independence Square. It is the 
home of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, founded by 
Benjamin Franklin in 1743 and 
the oldest learned society in the 
United States. The society 
erected the building between 
1785 and 1789 and still occupies 
it. Philosophical Hall is not 
open to the public. 
$ 104 South Fifth Street 




St. George's Church, at right, 
is the oldest Methodist Church 
in the United States. Except 
for the winter of 1777-78, it has 
been in constant use since 1769. 
© 235 North Fourth Street 




56 



St. Joseph's Church was estab- 
lished in 1733 as the first Roman 
Catholic Church in Philadel- 
phia. The present structure 
dates from 1838. 
© Willing s Alley, near Fourth 
and Walnut Streets 




Second Bank of the United 
States, one of the finest exam- 
ples of Greek Revival architec- 
ture in America, was designed 
by William Strickland and built 
between 1819 and 1824. The 
Second Bank, incorporated in 
1816, was one of the most in- 
fluential financial institutions in 
the world until 1832, when it 
became the center of bitter 
controversy between bank 
president Nicholas Biddle and 
President Andrew Jackson. 
The bank ceased to exist in 
1836 after Jackson vetoed the 
bill to renew its charter, but 
the building continued to house 
a banking institution under 
Pennsylvania charter. From 
1845 to 1935 it served as the 
Philadelphia Customs House. 
Today it contains the park's 
Portrait Gallery, "Faces of 
Independence," an extensive 
collection of paintings of 
Colonial and Federal leaders, 
mostly by Charles Willson 
Peale. Free guided tours are 
given upon request. You can 
also explore the gallery on 
your own. 
© 420 Chestnut Street, between 
Fourth and Fifth Streets 




57 



Thaddeus Kosciuszko National 
Memorial. The Polish military 
engineer who designed and 
constructed American defense 
works during the Revolution 
lived in this house in 1797-98 
during his second visit to 
America. 
© 301 Pine Street 




Todd House, built in 1775, was 
occupied from 1791 to 1793 by 
lawyer John Todd, Jr., and his 
wife Dolley Payne. Todd died 
during the 1793 yellow fever 
epidemic. Following her hus- 
band's death, Dolley married 
James Madison, destined to be- 
come the fourth President of 
the United States. The couple 
subsequently moved to the 
Madison estate in Virginia. The 
Todd House reflects the life- 
style of 18th-century Philadel- 
phia's middle class. It is open 
by tour only. Free tickets are 
available at the visitor center. 
^ Northeast corner, Fourth 
and Walnut Streets 




58 



Preservation of a Shrine 



Independence National Historical Park 
had its origin in efforts to preserve the 
building most closely associated with 
the winning of American indepen- 
dence—the old State House or Inde- 
pendence Hall as it is known today. 
After the State government moved to 
Lancaster in 1799, no one had any 
immediate use for the building, nor 
was there any thought of preserving it 
as a relic of the past. For several years 
it stood empty. Then the artist Charles 
Willson Peale received permission to 
use the building to display his exten- 
sive natural history collection and por- 
traits, housed at the time in Philosoph- 
ical Hall. Though Peale altered the 
Assembly Room and rebuilt the Long 
Room to accommodate his specimens, 
he otherwise took good care of the 
building and grounds during the next 
quarter century. 

It was during Peale's occupancy that 
the city, in 1816, bought the State 
House and put it beyond the reach of 
private developers. Even so, the build- 
ing was still hardly regarded as a shrine. 
It took the visit of Lafayette— Wash- 
ington's old comrade-in-arms— in 1824 
to bring out the first feelings of public 
veneration for the old structure. A 
huge arch was constructed in front of 
the building and portraits of Revolu- 
tionary War heroes were hung in the 
Assembly Room, then called the "Hall 
of Independence." Lafayette's recep- 
tion here by dignitaries, and a round of 
parties, balls, and festivities, did much 
to stimulate interest in the Revolution. 

Out of this new interest came the 
plan in 1828 to restore the steeple that 
stood on the rear of the building in 
1776. William Strickland's design, 
though in no sense a restoration, was 
close to the original. This work was 
followed in a few years by the first real 
attempt at restoring the Assembly 



Room. John Haviland's refurbishing 
apparently pleased the local citizens. 
Over the next two decades the main 
use of the building was for exhibits and 
receptions for distinguished visitors 
and Presidents, who came as if on a 
pilgrimage. Thus President-elect Lin- 
coln in 1861: "I am filled with deep 
emotion at finding myself standing in 
this place, where were collected to- 
gether the wisdom, the patriotism, the 
devotion to principle, from which 
sprang the institutions under which we 
live ... all the political sentiments I 
entertain have been drawn, so far as I 
have been able to draw them, from the 
sentiments which originated and were 
given to the world from this Hall. I 
have never had a feeling politically 
that did not spring from the sentiments 
embodied in the Declaration of 
Independence." 

As the 1876 Centennial approached, 
the Assembly Room came in for more 
work: furniture was collected, the dais 
rebuilt, pillars erected to support the 
ceiling, a new clock and bell installed. 
This restoration sufficed until the 
1890's, when a new round of work— 
more extensive and far more accurate 
— began. When work was over, the 
State House approximated its appear- 
ance during the Revolution. The two 
flanking buildings— Congress Hall and 
the Supreme Court— were restored 
under the auspices of the local chapter 
of the American Institute of Archi- 
tects in 1913 and 1922, respectively. 

The splendor of Independence Hall 
now contrasted sharply with its deteri- 
orating neighborhood. Up to this point 
the burden of preserving a national 
inheritance was borne by the city and 
a handful of private organizations. A 
broader concept and new resources 
were needed. A start was made in 1938 
when the Second Bank, threatened by 



59 



demolition, was designated a national 
historic site, followed by Gloria Dei 
Church in 1942, and Independence 
Hall itself a year later. Many individu- 
als and groups had long been aware of 
the opportunities for both preserva- 
tion and renewal in the heart of 
downtown Philadelphia. In 1942 the 
representatives of over 50 groups 
organized themselves as the Indepen- 
dence Hall Association. This organiza- 
tion, still a vigorous champion of 
preservation, was primarily responsible 
for the establishment of Independence 
National Historical Park in 1948. 

Congress defined the Federal area 
as the three city blocks between Wal- 
nut and Chestnut Streets from Second 
to Fifth Streets and a few important 
nearby areas, such as the site of Frank- 
lin's house. The significant buildings in 
this area include the First and Second 
Banks of the United States, the Phila- 
delphia Exchange, the Bishop White 
House, and Todd House. Carpenters' 
Hall, within the Federal area, and Christ 
Church, a few blocks away, are private 
institutions preserved and interpreted 
through cooperative agreements. 

The city and the State have both 
made vital contributions to the park 
concept. The city, while retaining title, 
gave custody of the Independence Hall 
group of buildings and the square to 
the Park Service; the State assumed 
responsibility for the development 
of the three-block mall north of Inde- 
pendence Hall. 

The advent of the Park Service in 
1950 provided a vital center for the 
coordination and direction of the many 
private, municipal, and State initiatives. 
Extensive research and restoration have 
been carried out on every building, 
and a green and finely scaled urban 
landscape created where once there 
was mostly decay and neglect. 




J 









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60 





Before restoration, the Todd 
House (above) was a corner 
eatery. 

The color views at left de- 
scribe two of the more startling 
transformations within the old 
State House in the 19th cen- 
tury. At top, Charles Willson 
Peale unveils his museum on 
the second floor ( 1822). Below 
is a lithograph of the Assembly 
Room in 1856, shortly after it 
was opened to the public. 
Lafayette's visit in 1824 brought 
an outpouring of sentiment for 
the old hero. In the woodcut 
above, the general arrives at 
Independence Hall, passing 
through a huge triumphal arch 
built specially for the occasion. 



61 



United States M 



A complete tour of the park includes 26 
sites, most of which are shown in red on 
this map. Two sites -Benjamin Frank- 
lin National Memorial (2) across the 
city and Deshler-M orris House (8) in 
Germantown-are located far off the 
map, and you should consult the cur- 
rent park folder or inquire at the visitor 
center for directions. The numbers 
below are keyed to site descriptions 
that begin on page 37. 



■L_ /H Free Quaker 
| Q) Meeting House 



Unde rground parking entr ance 



Graff House ®H| 

H 



Ranstead Street 




Underground parking 
entrance 



i West bound subway 

Market Street 



• East bound subway 



Ludlow Street 



Independence Hall© 
Congress Hall O H f^^^^F^JM 

z^owcji^^hE((JP 

Philosophical Hall O 



Second Bank 

of the gm. 
United States © 

Chestr; 





















St James Street 

! 

1 


Locust Street 







Walnut Street 






Ml 



South Washington Sq 




©Mikveh Israel 
Cemetery ■ Manning s „ 



i To St. George's Church 
(two blocks) Betsy Ross House §§ 

(City of Philadelphia) |J 



To Elfreths Alley 





10 Meters 



Christ Church 



Commerce Street 



©Franklin Court 



« 



f 



Market Street 
Houses 



Entrance to 
underground museum 



West bound subway ' 



East bound subway • 



_ Army-Navy Museum 
| l c ar } n | ©(Pemberton House) 

emorial 
i/luseum ' 
■w Hall) 



]- 



II First Bank l n . 

Of the g* Ml Bicentennial Bell 

United States^ H-Visitor Center 

O Carpenters' Hall ? ^ 



? 1 8th-cenlury Pennsylvania Horticultural Society 
garden 



I« 




O c '*y Tavern 



{Administrative Offices 
) Todd House (J) Philadelphia Exchange 

O Bishop White House 



Chancellor St.r 



^)St. Joseph's Church 




To Perm's Landing 



Locust Street 



To Thaddeus Kosciuszko NM 
(two blocks) 



To Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church 
(1.2 km./. 74 mi south) 




Credits 

American Antiquarian Society: 9 ( 1741 woodcut). 
American Philosophical Society: 44. 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts: 18 (Revere and S. 
Adams by John Singleton Copley). 

[Collection: 11 (Howe). 
Donnelley & Sons, R.R.: 62-63. 
Fistrovitch, George: cover, 4-5, 14-15, 34-35, 37 (top), 
38-39, 40-41 , 42, 43, 46, 47, 48-49, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58. 
Gallagher, Lynn T.: 8-9, 19, 24, 28, 29, 30 (Deshlei 
Morris House), 31 (coach), 32. 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania: 12 ("President's 
House"), 13 (First Bank), 22, 26-27 (Edward Savage 
painting), 41 (Birch print). 

Independence National Historical Park Collection: 
17, 18 (Adams, Dickinson, and Robert Morris by 
Charles Willson Peale and Patrick Henry by an 
unknown artist after Lawrence Sully), 24 (bottom), 27 
(Madison by Peale and Jefferson by James Sharpies), 
28 (Sherman and Ellsworth), 29 ( Wilson), 30 (Morris 
House and Rush Statue), 31 (Hamilton, Jefferson, 
and Knox by Peale), 60-61 (Rosenthal lithograph and 
1951 photo). 

Lautman, Robert: 16 (Franklin Court), 40, 45, 50-51. 
Library Company of Philadelphia: 8 (Holrrfe map), 
12 (Birch engraving of Indians). 
Library of Congress: 8 (map), 18 (Galloway), 29 
(Gouverneur Morris). 

National Gallery of Art: 10 (Paine), 18 (Jay by Gilbert 
Stuart). 

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts: 60 (Peale, The 
Artist in His Museum). 
Philadelphia, city of: 6. 

Philadelphia Free Library: 60-61 ( 1824 woodcut). 
Schlecht, Richard: 10 {Randolph). 
Troiani, Don: 20-21. 

Valley Forge Historical Society: 1 1 {Battle of 
Germantown by Xavier Delia Gatta, 1782). 
Virginia State Library: 31 (Randolph). 
Woodward, William: 16 (Franklin). 



National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 




Independence National Historical Park was authorized 
by Act of Congress in 1948 to assure the preservation 
of several historic buildings around Independence Hall 
in the heart of Philadelphia. By an agreement in 1950 
between the City of Philadelphia and the Department 
of the Interior, the National Park Service administers 
the Independence Hall group of buildings and Independ- 
ence Square, but the city retains ownership of the 
property. A superintendent whose address is 313 Walnut 
St., Philadelphia, PA 19106, is in immediate charge. 

As the Nation's principal conservation agency, the 
Department of the Interior has responsibility for 
most of our nationally owned public lands and 
natural resources. This responsibility includes foster- 
ing the wisest use of our land and water resources, 
protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the envi- 
ronmental and cultural values of our national parks 
and historical places, and providing for the enjoy- 
ment of life through outdoor recreation. The De- 
partment assesses our energy and mineral resources 
and works to assure that their development is in the 
best interests of all our people. The Department also 
has a major responsibility for American Indian res- 
ervation communities and for people who live in 
island territories under U.S. administration. 



Independence 






A Guide to Independence National Historical Park 



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